Agriculture Course – Lecture 3

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Let us again make a quick review. In Lecture I, the earth was placed in a cosmic context. This was done by speaking of calcium and silica in relation to the planets and the moon in relation to rain. The earth and farmer are also oriented to the universal by discussing a new economics that is based on the work and knowledge of the farmer. The knowledge is gained from the work of the limb, the inter- relationship of all aspects of the earth come to be reflected in world economics. The point of establishing the earth as a cosmic body, and the economic process as a universal process, is so that the human individuality can unfold the farm as an individuality. This is needed for the proper nutrition, reproduction and propagation of mankind, as well as the living world, that is the plant and animal. All has to be attended to. This is the work of the farmer.

As we turn to Lecture II, we have considered that the earth, which is a part of the cosmic process, breathes. Man as a single being and as a universal being, also breathes. We tried to establish how this breathing process can be looked at by considering the respiratory activities as three matters – mothers. One of the three mothers establishes the life for the earth which is the support for the plant. The plant carries a mother which is to support the seed, and the human blood carries a mother (matter) which is the support for human individuality. As we look at breathing, we have to consider the movement process. Breathing describes a movement process for air. To consider breathing without considering air does not make much sense. Thus we can say that not only do we have to consider the earth, the plant and man in the breathing process, but we have to assume the condition of the atmosphere – the airiness of existence that has been established. This places the human being, the earth, the plant and also the animal, into the time of Atlantis and post-Atlantean evolution. This is the time when atmospheric conditions of the earth were established as we know them today. If we speak of breathing, at an earlier time, Lemuria and Hyperborea, we have to consider more of a digestive process. The breathing, respiration and then sense activities evolved out of a kind of digestion where the atmosphere was living and proteinaceous very early in evolution. We gather this from our biblical texts, but also Rudolf Steiner has elaborated this very extensively. Early breathing was a digestive-like activity as we know digestion today.

The way in which Rudolf Steiner speaks about breathing is to first consider the surface of the earth as a diaphragm. He shifts from the physical diaphragm or the physical surface of the earth to the physical human diaphragm. He leads this over to a chemical diaphragm. It is for this reason that I elaborated the activities of the clay as the earth diaphragm, chemically constituted. Chlorophyll is a chemical substance which constitutes the chemical diaphragm of the plant. And I have suggested that hemoglobin is the diaphragm for the human blood in the respiratory process.

In order to have a breathing earth, we need clay. Clay mediates between silica and calcium. In order to have a real breathing in man, a semi-chemical process with the movement of the blood, with the red cell and hemoglobin, is a necessity. Our further considerations were to look at the aluminum of clay, the magnesium of chlorophyll, the iron of hemoglobin. They are all three metals, poisonous to life in their natural state, and they serve an essential role to mother the respiratory process.

As we move onto Lecture III, we have to make a significant step into physiological, chemical, bio-chemical considerations. This, at the same time, permits us to make a step from the breathing process to that of respiration. In terms of the general physiology and chemistry of our day, we will have to speak of respiratory chemistry. The breathing is more involved with the exchange of gas, gas moving in and out of an organism. However, respiration from a chemical and technical point of view has to do with material transformations connected with oxygen-aerobic metabolism. Therefore we have to speak of respiratory-metabolic activity related to the airy condition of matter and in particular to the element of oxygen. This is a step from an activity of movement to that of chemism.

In the air, we have a condition of materiality. We have light-ether which is the determiner of the airy. In respiration, we have to consider what occurs in the fluidic domain. The state of liquidity is where chemical-ether is determinative. Here we can find the transformations of substance as they relate to the respiratory process. This is a significantly deeper layer of activity than breathing – the movement of air. Respiration is a more inward expression of the transformations of materiality. This takes us to the transformations of those substances which are siblings-daughters-sisters, and are born of and carried by mother substances. The mother substances of breathing lead to the transformations of the daughters in respiratory metabolism. These transformations of the siblings-daughters in turn lead to the birth of individuality. The astral body (ether-body also) is connected to breathing, but respiration is connected and involved with the individuality, the individuality principle, the ego.

An ego principle is involved in the mineral kingdom, the plant kingdom, the animal kingdom and the human kingdom. We are making a step by considering the chemism and chemical transformation of materiality in order to comprehend the birthing of the individuality in the kingdoms of existence. There is a refining, a delineation. An individuation process, as respiration, is established. This is the condition of kingdom formation. Ego or individual principle can establish kingdomness on a chemical level. In fact, it is not possible to speak of a kingdom without an ego. Therefore, chemism is also vital.

Ego, as far as I can see, typifies the mineral, plant, animal and human kingdoms. Rudolf Steiner has made many efforts to distinguish the group ego process of the mineral, which lives in the domain of the Thrones, in the first hierarchy. The plant ego activity exists in the sphere of the Kyriotetes, in the second hierarchy. The Spirits of Motion, Dynamis, work as a group ego to establish the animal kingdom. They exist within the second Hierarchy of spiritual beings. It is with the human kingdom that we can also speak of a group ego being, which is determined by the Spirits of Form. However, in the case of this kingdom, each individual can become a kingdom unto himself. It is with this significant high degree of individuation, that we have to make our way. As we make our way to this individuation process, we have to take up respiration – or sibling activity of matter – mothering activity which gives rise to daughter activity or a son activity.

As we approach this very complex problem of understanding the individuation, and transformations of materiality for unfolding of farm individuation, we have to take up a totally new view of chemistry. This chemistry is introduced by Rudolf Steiner in this lecture. This is a totally new world of chemistry. Some have wrestled with this chemistry, not too many. Further steps will have to be made. Here I will try to share some thoughts that I have carried for many years, searching to find a way to approach this chemistry – the material basis of the spirit, or the material basis of individuation. I realize how germinal this all is. It is a small step on a long and new path.

It is well known by those who have looked into the history of this Agriculture Course, that Rudolf Steiner invited eurythmists to be present. We can ask why? He obviously wanted the farmer, the gardener to be there. My understanding was that he was also hoping that physicians and therapists interested in healing substances would be there. As I understand it, his wish was not met. I gather that Rudolf Steiner asked Ita Wegman to take the agriculture work into the Medical Section. She declined this. I believe that this has been very significant for both the medical work and the agriculture work. These two fields are intimately bound. The fact that they are separated in the fields of knowledge has created immense problems in civilization. This division probably will continue to create problems within the Anthroposophical Movement as long as its union is not cultivated with an intense and devoted work. Human physiology, the human psychology, the human spirituality, have to be seen in relation to the earth and nature that is so much the province of the farmer. The living earth, the living plant and animal have to be worked with by the farmer. The atmosphere, as well as what is outside man, has a correspondence within man. A careful working between those concerned with man and nature is necessary. Here the artist is needed. By this means, correspondences can be found and taken up. It is in the correspondence between nature and man that leads us to an understanding of substance as it relates to nutrition, propagation, healing and the creativeness of the spirit in man.

Now if we go back to the eurythmists invited to this conference, we can think that this is not so easy to understand. However it seems to me that if we look at what is being given here in the form of a new chemistry, then the need becomes more evident. My thesis is that in what Rudolf Steiner has given as a description of the five chemical elements, the five siblings, requires the artistry of word, music and movement for elaboration. The eurythmist can help evolve these sisters-siblings that are sketched here in this lecture. With this said, let us now turn to these five beings.

As we know, these five beings, five siblings, five sisters, five offspring are known as carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen and sulphur. Generally they are known as chemical elements. Their existence has been known since the 16th Century with the unfolding of chemistry through the investigation of Lavoisier and others. Today it is known that the air about us, the chemical constituency of the air is that of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen. Of course, other trace elements, sulphur and the like, have to be added. But the largest percentage of air, in its elemental make up, is made up by these four siblings.

If we look to a description of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen and sulphur, we will note that the chemistry of our day describes the elements in atomic form. That is, if we shrink the cosmos, the sun at the center with revolving planets, if we shrink this cosmos to an unimaginably small entity, we come to an image of the atom. We reconstruct that cosmos into the form of an atom in our imagination. The nucleus, with encircling electrons, is one mental picture of the basic form of all matter. Thus we take our thought-image picture of the universe, reduce it to even smaller than the minutest possible size and then investigate matter in the light of this image. We then study the basic forms of materiality. Since the nucleus of the atom is so small (we imagine), it is almost negligible. By this means, the atom becomes a spatial entity, a shrunken cosmos, which is largely composed of electricity, electrical orbits – like the orbits of planets. The electricity of these orbits determines the behavior of our shrunken cosmic particle. Thus we have a spherical, or box image of the universe. We have shrunken sense experience and spatial imagination to an infinitesimally small dimensional mass – the atom. We have eliminated most materiality – as the nucleus is highly insignificant (though it gives “Atomic Weights”), and what we are left with is an electrical planetary system that determines the behavior of this shrunken universe. It is interesting that we investigate materiality in the light of this imagination. It is not realized that this is an image because research can verify this image. Physics says that matter is actually constituted by substance whose configuration is the atom. This is an “electrified” view, essentially the mass is that of the “electron” – a mass of electricity.

What is not realized is that one can establish conditions to reveal what one wants to. The mode of scientific investigation is created by our mental make up and activity. It is so strange that the scientist of our day does not reflect and realize that our view of materiality is mind dependent. Certainly there is no fallacy in being able to put substance into special conditions. Certain revelations will be produced. These can verify our idea. The huge synclocyclotron, the current atomic studies – all show that we can understand materiality from this point of view. It, however, takes some careful thought and self-reflection to realize that the material of our universe could be subjected to other considerations. Then other revelations of the materiality could be made. The problem is that if this is done, those who hold the “religion” of the atom, are very easily unseated. Much of civilization has been so trained now that the bulk of mankind can only think in terms of this particulate atomism. It is considered uncivilized, unscientific, in a way uncultured, not to think of materiality in the form that it is promulgated today by science. We can easily see that the science of our day is actually a semi-religious system with rituals and altar celebrations. The work of our laboratories, the physics laboratories and our huge atomic research plants, these are the altars of the religion of science. This religion has produced dogma, as well as astonishing revelations about matter. However, this is Ahriman’s laboratory and work. We would have to think that we can reconstitute the laboratory process to see if materiality can come to expression in its inner essence in other ways.

One way in which materiality appears to behave differently than the aforementioned Ahrimanic religious ritual system is to undertake the rhythmic dilution of substance. A substance has to be shaken, succussed, as it is rhythmically diluted. The process of succussion with sequential dilution is what we call potentization. When this is done, quite new and different revelations of materiality can be made. This is different than the revelations of physics, bio-chemistry or physical biochemistry as we have today. As you know from recent years, this potentization process has begun to be investigated. The first investigation of potentization by means of laboratory research was undertaken by Lily Kolisko at Rudolf Steiner’s suggestion. If the thesis I am developing here is correct, that means that potentization gives us another view of materiality. Then it becomes crucial to undertake this research much more extensively. This would help give a counter balance to the shrunken cosmic electrical particulate view of matter espoused by the religion of science today.

I have taken up this line of consideration only to indicate that those who are living in this century, living in the present day, will immediately be faced with what is promulgated as the religion of our time, that is, particulate atomism and its electrical view. A step in the direction of another consideration of materiality, as far as I can see, is posed by succussion and multiple dilution methods. Several other methods to express the workings of matter would be important. From an Anthroposophical perspective, several other scientific methods have been evolved in laboratory research to wrestle with this problem. Chromotography, either circular or column chromotographic methods have been evolved by Kolisko and Pfeiffer. The crystallization technique of Pfeiffer or the drop method of Schwenck are further methods of investigation. These latter three techniques are mostly involved with the attempt to create conditions where material can be considered to be the carrier of force systems which bring about form. All of these various considerations have to be made as we approach what is placed here before us as a new chemistry. This is totally new. This chemistry was introduced by Rudolf Steiner telling us that there are five sisters, or five siblings – five beings – not five different atoms.

For a good number of years I have wondered why he speaks of sisters. If they are sisters, we have to ask, where is the mother or where is a brother? How about a father element? It is just such questions that led me in previous considerations to take up the three mothers, the three mothers that are connected with breathing. Following this line of thought, I would here have to say that I will have to try to take up a fourth mother, who is the mother of the five siblings. We will have to look for a brother or son that has been born to the fourth mother. So I contend that there are not only the five siblings, the five sisters, but we need to look for a sixth sibling – a son.

My suspicions here are that Rudolf Steiner’s language is, in fact, fairly precise. He is introducing something of an alchemic consideration. If we look at alchemy, we then have to turn back to several thousand years BC in Egypt. In this culture there was profound consideration of the dark earth or alchem – earth substance. In this old culture, we come to the Mysteries of Isis and Osiris, as a basis for this approach to the earth as the dark earth. It is with the Mysteries of Isis and Osiris that we come to speak of the Trinitary elements – the Father, the Mother and the Child – (Isis, Osiris and Horus) – or brother and sister (Isis and Osiris). My suspicion is that it is with the Egyptian mysteries that we begin something in human cultural evolution that permits us to make a path towards the point that we have come to now – that is the knowledge and working of substance. We have to find chemical parentage and sibling activity in order to make our way to the individual. We are entering into the region or domain of chemism or chemistry of the dark earth as it pertains to the unfolding of that that is truly individual – this is alchemy. This points us back to a long, long history in man’s cultural evolution.

With that said, let us now turn to these five siblings. These five are described in a semi-anthropomorphic form. They are largely described in their dynamic workings. Rudolf Steiner began the discussion of dynamics in relation to substance, in the first lecture where silica and calcium were spoken of. The dynamics, the inner workings, the form and action of silica and calcium are presented. The dynamics of silica and calcium as this pertains to nourishment and reproduction or propagation is also presented in the first chapter. The form activity of substance and the dynamic life activity of substance is elaborated further here in relation to these five siblings.

If we start with the first sibling, we are introduced to a dark being. We are introduced to carbon or the dark being in the earth. We have to look at coal substance. If we trace this carbonaceous matter from its dark condition to its earlier states, we have to think that coal was actually plant substance. Plant substance grows in relationship to the sun. It is actually sunlight substance that has fallen to the earth and has become the black materiality of coal. Its other two forms, that of graphite, which easily mixes with clay, and that of the diamond, which has a distinct relationship to form and light, are older forms of carbon. Our present carbon-coal we associate so much with the structuring and form expression in the plant with its cellulose. In the human being and in animal, we speak of carbon in relationship to basic substance in the organism. Without carbon, we could not have the major chemical provinces of substance that is carbohydrates, proteins and fats. It is carbon that gives not only the backbone for these major substances, but its chemistry is, in fact, identified with the chemism of the living, that is organic chemistry. As mineral, general chemistry is based in atomistic thinking of about 107 elements. Organic chemistry is based in the carbonaceous form transformations of substances. If we do not have carbon involved in the chemism of a process, then todays science does not consider the chemistry to be organic chemistry or the chemism of the living. To be true, we can say that not all organic chemistry is chemistry of the living. I would, however, like to suggest that organic chemistry has its basis in the living, even if it is reduced to a bare minimum of livingness when organic transformations are brought about in the laboratory. However, what is important here is that the basic considerations in organic chemistry, the basic considerations of changes and transformations, the morphological and chemical changes, are connected with carbon.

In this setting, in this lecture in considering carbon, Rudolf Steiner baptizes carbon with the name of “the former”. “The former” is not only a name, but is also an activity. Carbon is the vehicle for form. It is the physical basis for form. It is the dynamic for form. Carbon expresses form. There may be formative elements inherent in the carbon itself. However, when one speaks of the former, it also suggests that carbon might be a carrier of formative forces. Carbon might be a vehicle. Carbon can bring outer expression of form. These three aspects, former, vehicle and expresser are necessary in order that we can say that carbon is needed for life, life of the plant, animal and man. Carbon is an orderer, so that form can come into expression. Without carbon, we would have formless expression in the world. We would have living chaos. If we go back to calcium and silica, we can think of the carbon with its formative element, influenced and directed by the silica and the calcium. Thus the formative of silica and calcium can work with, into and through carbon.

Rudolf Steiner further indicates that this carbon being, this black lowly being, is the substance of the “Philosopher’s Stone”. He does not elaborate in this course how this can be the case. However, even in his Introduction to Anthroposophy in 1924, Rudolf Steiner gives some very important hints how this lowly carbon can become the Philosopher’s Stone. He tells that this comes about through the fact that carbonaceous material within the human being is given off in the breath. This carbon material in the breath when seen by a consciousness that can maintain itself when free of the body, this carbon then reveals itself to be radiational carbon, radiating of light. This is the carbon of the human being that is given over to the living – to the plant, to the earth. In expiration, we give off a form of carbon which has been transformed through man’s metabolism. When it is given off, it is radiant material. This radiant carbon has to be taken on by the plant. This is new life substance for the plant. (We breathe in our fellow man’s radiance). As we know, approximately 20% of the carbonaceous material of plant life is given by man, by his carbonaceous excretion in expiration.

Thus this carbon being, which in its mineral state can be black as coal, grayish-silvery as graphite and light reflecting – resplendent as diamond, in its mineral condition can express and give rise to form in the transformations of chemistry or bodily metabolism. Carbon can become a vehicle for the formative and can itself carry the activity of forming. From its three forms in the mineral world (coal, graphite and diamond), we meet carbon in its non-living form. In the manifold transformations in the living world, we meet other aspects of carbon. Lowly carbon can be raised to great heights in the mineral and become endlessly transformed in the living plant. It is endlessly transformed in the living and through man, becomes the basis for expressing a radiant resurrecting activity. Such contemplations could possibly be worked at by eurythmists, art historians, insightful chemists, true alchemic physicists and striving therapeutic farmers. A deeper life is required for such an approach. Meditative life is needed.

If we move onto the second sibling, we have oxygen. Oxygen is the “Mover”, the “Mobilizer”, the “Transformer”. Again, the being of oxygen is described in mobile terms – anthropomorphic. That which wants to assume forms, that is carbon, has to be able to be moved and transformed. It is our being, oxygen, that permits this transformation. The ever mobile, the ever changing, has to live in relationship to the form in order that the form can become transformed. Our sibling, or sister, oxygen, is a crucial being, worker, in the world of chemical transformation, permitting the ever changing to occur. In terms of its existence, the atmosphere is constituted of approximately 20% of this substance or we can say 20% of the beingness of our atmosphere is the work of this being of oxygen. The being of carbon plays a relatively small role. I believe about .4%, of carbon (considered with oxygen in a sisterly relationship) exists in our atmosphere. Our atmosphere, then, is a great, garmented “mother-being” who carries these siblings in her vestment. Without the being of oxygen, the soul life of man would be unthinkable. Here one would have to say that the life of respiratory chemistry, the life of oxidation would be unthinkable. Oxidation is a transformative process in all of nature, in the mineral kingdom, the plant, animal, as well as man. It is very much of an important being in inorganic, as well as organic chemistry. It is crucial for the chemism of living transformations. Oxygen is the essential being in bringing about the breathing process which is crucial to our discussion here. Oxygen is the crucial element-being which permits the respiratory process in terms of chemical substance, living transformation in relation to egoness. As we know, it was not discovered until Lavoisier undertook his experiments in the 16th century. I would like to suggest that this being was brought to incarnate physically out of the living world of the atmosphere. Oxygen was forced to be born out of the garment vestment of the sphere of the breath – “atma-sphere”.

It seems to be important that we consider the being oxygen within the atma-breath sphere. I would distinguish this oxygen from the O2 that we have forcibly removed from the atmosphere. To be true our atma-sphere is dying and our forceful intervention there accelerates this process. Oxygen is a being who can be subjected to elemental conditions, mechanical compression, electrical dissection, and mechanical imprisonment. This gives us bottled gas or bottled oxygen. To say that this is the condition of oxygen in the atmosphere seems to me to be a bit lacking in thoughtfulness. Even our researchers suggest that oxygen lives in an even more nascent being state called ozone. This is crucial to the life of our atmosphere. Too much life is not healthy. Just as we can say that too much living oxygen process or free radical process in the human organism, free radical chemism, brings about disorderly states in chemism, so we have to consider that the non-living state of oxygen is also important. With both living (ozone) and non-living (O2) oxygen, we are referring to a being – not an “atom”. To be true, “atomism” can be brought about to create an “atom” sphere, but this is a further individualization and, I would say, death process of this being. Such contemplations are necessary for a new chemistry. Certainly, Rudolf Steiner has given these descriptions in hopes of further progress in chemistry. I find it a challenge when he suggests that a modern Christianity cannot be evolved without a totally new chemistry.

Let us now go on to nitrogen. Again, all of this is very introductory. I hope to be able to develop this further. This is, at the moment, the best that I can do and offer it, share it as a first consideration, even if I have pondered these matters for a good number of years.

The being of nitrogen is addressed as “an imitator”. On the one hand, this great imitator is able to take up the form that is carried by carbon and is able to imitate the mobility of oxygen, that is, the mobilizer. The imitative mediating role of nitrogen is depicted in a very lively way in this lecture. The imitator of form, the imitator of mobility, the mediator-imitator activity permits that which is mobile and that which is fixed to be brought into relation with one another. There is at work a weaving in between, making a relation between two opposites – that is fixed form and the ever mobile. This weaving is enacted by nitrogen. This same process is described as “the mercurial” in relationship to higher functioning of materiality. But here, something of a semi-mercurial like working is brought in relationship to nitrogen. Nitrogen is approximately 80% of the sibling beingness of the vestment of mother-substance (matter) of our Atma-atmosphere. This is the sphere of the garmented mother. This garmented mother-being, I would like to think, lives within the whole cosmic sphere of what we would call the father element. This atmosphere, mother-sphere, permits respiration. This sphere is very much filled with the activity of the being that we are discussing here. By and large, we are told that this being is inert and not significant. Rudolf Steiner indicates, however, that nitrogen is very important. Nitrogen is very much the basis of our soul life in the material world. With nitrogen, we become further concerned with respiration and, as well, the transformation of materiality which opens respiratory chemism to a kind of chemical soulness. The nitrogen man in man is a being of mobility permitting soulness. It permits mobility, but also permits a mobility that is then open to soulness – to astrality. Here we then have to think not just of the chemism of substance, the transformation of carbon by oxygen, but the mediation of the two so that a quality of soulness can take hold in chemical transformations. This now distinguishes and makes a third distinction necessary. We have to distinguish between breathing, respiration and the soulness that is connected with respiratory metabolic chemism. The highly imitative activity of nitrogen brings out of the atmo-sphere a substantiality that permits plants, animals and man to be related to soulness. When we read in the Books of Genesis (King James Version – editor) that God breathed the living soul into man, we are not told that he just breathed life. God breathed the living soul that has transformed breathing to physiological chemistry to respiratory chemism and to soul chemistry – nitrogen chemistry. The Old Testament points to the birth of soulness into matter at that time. Soulness is the beginning and on the way to the process of individuation. This begins with a mobility that is then open to soulness. Here we speak of soulness when we consider that which we call astrality. Astral substance has soul working. This we have to bring very much in connection to nitrogen. It is, therefore, that Rudolf Steiner tells that our human inner astral organization identifies with the astral organization around us, initiates it and therefore when necessary the human being gives off some nitrogen to compensate for changes in nitrogen in the atmosphere. This is, of course, well known today with the “bends”. In “bends” there is a liberation of the nitrogen from the blood into surrounding tissues. Nitrogen, as gas, leaves the blood – enters the cells as gas and produces illness. Decompression chambers have been constructed in order to take care of this illness connected with nitrogen, so that this illness does not occur. This is a gaseous nitrogen man in the organism. When the atmosphere changes rapidly, this nitrogen man in the blood wants to escape into the tissues. With decompression, it can enter the environment. A proper pressure relation between nitrogen in man and outside man has to be maintained.

Nitrogen is present as material substance in all of our tissues and fluids in proteinaceous material. This being of nitrogen in protein makes it possible for the plant, animal, even mineral to become, in a way, slightly ensouled. The paths and workings of imitative mediating, the working of nitrogen, penetrates all corners of existence. Its perception leads to a kind of prickly-sticking sensation. I associate it with the very clear sweet smell that follows the stroke of lightning. If we compare this smell with carbon, particularly carbon dioxide, in the case of the latter, we experience a dampening of sensation. With oxygen, we can experience a slight stimulus and a slightly sour taste. Therefore, Germans call oxygen “sauerstoff”. The sensation producing quality of nitrous oxide is captured by the German who calls it “stickstoff”. Thus we can actually perceive these beings in our atmosphere by the use of the senses. However, Rudolf Steiner is giving a much more occult objective basis for perceiving and comprehending the functioning of the sibling nitrogen, as well as other siblings.

The functioning of this being in relation to the earth, Rudolf Steiner gives in this lecture when he speaks of the papillionacae, the leguminosae. This is a plant family which inbreathes nitrogen, places it into the earth. Nitrates are formed by this plant family. The forming of the little nodules on the roots of these plants, the formation of rhizomes, has been extensively studied. The nodules form as the result of a symbiotic infestation of the root of the plant by the rhizobium bacteria. As a matter of fact, a description of this nodule formation can be found in the July 3rd, 1992 edition of the publication Science, published by the American Assoc. for the Advancement of Science. What we see is that it takes a bacterium, which is plant-animal, a plant-animal activity to produce the nodule and bring the plant in relation to nitrogen substance of the atmosphere. This plant family produces an earth inbreathing, as it were, in relation to nitrogen. Rudolf Steiner indicates that all other plants, the non-leguminosae, produce an outbreathing nitrogen process into the cosmos. The being of nitrogen then is depicted as a being who distinguishes the leguminosae from all other plants. Nitrogen produces an inbreathing and outbreathing in relation to plants and thereby relates the breathing of plant life to respiration. Ensouled plants, cosmic ensouled plants, bring nitrogen into the earth. In the same way, man produces a respiratory balance with the cosmos. He not only breathes, he respires. By this means, man develops an intimate soul-relation with the atma-sphere, the breath sphere of existence around him, Atma-sphere is the sphere of mother-substance – father-cosmos related.

Let us take another view of this nitrogen beingness. We note that it always has to be balanced. We note that what is inside has to balance the outside. What is above has to balance the below. What lives in the plant as pure life has to be raised to the sphere of nitrogen. The whole plant world is divided between the leguminosae and the non-leguminosae. This is a totally new way to seek an understanding of the plant world. The plant, through the leguminosae, then becomes an expression of a breathing process connected with nitrogen. This nitrogen in turn is given over to the earth. While this is occurring in the plant and man, we can contemplate how this respiratory process serves to rekindle the atmo-sphere. Our atmosphere is ensouled by the plants and man. The earth is ensouled via the plant – leguminosae. The soulness lives in the life of the plant chemistry to enter into the make up of the earth. Man as a meditative, sentient being, then is able to unite himself with the plant and the mineral earth. In a higher state of consciousness where one can see the radiant quality of the carbon, here, with nitrogen, the clear seeing becomes clear smelling. Clairvoyance becomes clairsentience. A part of man’s being enters into the sphere of atma and there can begin a life that is connected with the plant and the earth. A human being who can follow these two processes, he has to develop quite new faculties. Clairsentience has to unfold out of clear sensing. The intense life process in the atmosphere, the oxygen being 20%, is of such magnitude that consciousness is lost. This same process in man has to be dampened. But in the case of nitrogen, so very extensive, 80% of the atmosphere, our sentientness is awakened. Our sentientness lives in the respiratory process.

Now let us go onto hydrogen. We are concerned here with the fourth sibling. Again it is described in a very living way by Rudolf Steiner. This sibling is described as a “chaotizer”. That which formed, was transformed and became sentient, now can be chaotized. This permits the entrance of something new – a new birth. The fire hydrogen being opens substance that is living and sentient – to a fire process that opens substance, formed soul-substance to fire-spirit- substance. In German, it is called water substance because it explodes and burns in the air to form water. It is airy in nature and explosive in activity. Its watery-fiery disposition opens respiratory metabolism to the potential of being individualized. Hydrogen is formed in the atmosphere in extremely small amounts. I believe it is .02%. When hydrogen is in larger concentrations it becomes explosive. It is explosive, highly explosive. It is shattering. It is not radiating, but fire explosion substance. This adds a dimension to substance which becomes not only soul-sensitive, but individually oriented. Quite new impulses have to enter into the substantiality so that individuality can be expressed in and on a substance level. A chaotic condition is needed for individual incarnative activity in substance.

If we talk about the being of fire, the chaotizer, the eliminator of form, of life, and of sentienticity, we can see the possibility of a door opening to something higher. We then come to the fifth sibling, that of sulphur. Sulphur is here described as that which “wets” substance and permits the indwelling of spirit in matter. The Individual is inspirited. Sulphur is a part of the substance of most protein. A good number of proteinaceous substances are sulphur bearing. The being of sulphur works into and brings about a direct relationship with the spirit. The chaotizing fire substance has to be able to receive the erectness of the spirit. The baptism by fire is accompanied by the wetness of sulphur’s spirit orientation. Sulphur, as mineral, is very complex in its behavior, existing, like carbon, in solid form. The proteinaceous material in the body is known today as organized carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen. The role of the sulphur in proteinaceous chemism is to permit the embedding of spirit into substance. Substance thereby gains a relation with the spirit. Through nitrogen, substance gains soul relationships. Through hydrogen, substance gains individuality. Through sulphur, substance is spirit related. I would like to suggest that a distinction can be made between non-sulphur bearing proteinaceous material and sulphur bearing materials. The non-sulphur bearing protein let us call protein. The sulphur bearing protein, let us call albumin. Protein is the work of four sisters. Albumin is the work of five sisters.

If we look at sulphur, we know that it is antipathetic to life as we know it. It extinguishes life altogether. Those exposed to sulphur can live only very short periods. Man becomes suffocated. The stench of sulphur bearing substances is very marked. Sulphur is not a major component in the mineral world though it works there in relationship to many minerals. In our recent consideration, the mineral to which it is very much connected and related is that of antimony. As oxygen is very much related to carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and to many of the other chemical constituents of the earth, so sulphur is related to antimony. It is therefore important that as we consider the five sisters, we also come to antimony. Antimony, a metallic substance, is very closely connected to sulphur. Iron is also connected to sulphur, but more so to oxygen. Sulphur brings a cosmic relation with fire substance and albumin. Iron and antimony both bring the potential for cosmic formative activity.

Antimony, as we know it, is extremely important in the organism as a process. It works there as the “antimonizing process”, but not as antimony substance. It stands in juxtaposition or as a polarity with the albuminizing processes. The albuminizing process we have identified as the working of the five sisters, that is, the living proteinaceous material that is raised to the spirit with sulphur, to become albuminous. By the activity of the four siblings, working with the fifth, sulphur, we find human living substance becoming able, as material substance, to serve as mother substance (matter) for further individualization activity. The individuation is a further step in cosmic process. By this designation albumin, I do not mean the albumin of today’s chemistry, which stands in juxtaposition with globin. The albumin here being spoken of is the mother substance for the five sisters. This is a fourth-mother which can permit further individuation of the spirit. This albumin is an archetypal substance that is present as physical material, spirit wetted. There is further possibility for individual activity in relation to the spirit in this matter. This is substance, a unique substance sought for in the Mysteries of Samothrace and Eleusis, as well as by the true Rosicrucian Alchemist. It remains for us to discover, as best as I can see. The chemistry given here is meant to go in this direction. This takes us back in time to the point in earthly cosmic history when man is born as soul and as spirit in relation to the cosmos, as well as the earth. This is the time and cosmic condition when our current atmosphere came into existence. This is the time of the birth of the rainbow – Atlantis. Before this period, the processes predominated in the sphere where now our air exists – with much more sulphur.

To recapitulate our steps, we have noted the formation of the atmosphere. The atmosphere has evolved together with the birth of man as an individual. This individual birth is necessary for the further evolution of the human form and activity.

Now I would like to go on to consider this atmo-sphere in its unfolding. In pursuing this, we will try to approach the Mother substance or the Mother beingness that birthed the five siblings. We, however, have to consider that a sixth sibling was anticipated and was the precondition to the birth of the other five. This sixth sibling has to be considered with the other five sisters. This sixth sibling – a brother, was a son of the mother substance. This sixth sibling – brother (male) is born of the mother substance in order for individual birth of man to occur. The sixth sibling I have mentioned is antimony.

Let us continue our considerations by looking at the evolution of the atmosphere – the atom-sphere, atmo-sphere, atma-sphere. From spiritual science we are told about this evolution. We are told how it was living, a living, substantial domain. In fact, we might consider that the first condition of earth evolution was the atmosphere. Out of this warm-air congealed the watery and then the solid. The atmosphere, in gradually losing the watery and solid, became an airy and warmth filled sphere. This atmo-sphere was the domain for the gradual birthing of man, of mankind. This atmospheric birth preceded man’s earthly – lithospheric birth. As the atmosphere evolved, so did the birth of man progress – the birth of the human individuality – the ego – the “I”.

Next I would like to make the unusual effort to try to depict the birth of the human being as ego being. As we know, the physical, etheric and astral were born on Saturn, Sun and Moon respectively. With Earth evolution, the ego was born to man. I would suggest we view this as a cosmic birth process. It probably is well to consider this in some detail.

Let us begin back with Saturn evolution. We are told that the physical was born. It is born through the sacrifice by the Thrones – of their own substance. On Sun, the etheric was given by the Spirits of Wisdom (Kyriotetes). Their gesture of creation was of bestowal giving, not sacrifice as with the Thrones. On Moon, the Spirits of Motion or Dynamis, through resignation, were able to birth the astral. It is then on earth that the ego is born, out of the sphere of the Elohim. These Elohim had evolved already and were able to bestow a physical form principle on Saturn, an etheric form principle on Sun, an astral form principle on Moon and finally on earth they are able to give birth to an Ego principle. They are always birthing a form principal – a form dynamic. This birthing we would have to describe as a death process, as far as the spiritual world is concerned. With the activities of the other hierarchical beings, the Thrones, Kyriotetes, and Dynamis, there is still a connection with that which is created and the creators. However, in the case of the birthing of the human ego by the Spirits of Form, there is an actual total separation of the birthed element and the creator. This is a birth that is a death – total form separation. The created is removed from the creator – to go its own way. This is death – total separation.

At the outset of Earth evolution, we can describe a racial condition of man. Man is called Polarian man. At that time, the ego bestowed by the Elohim was united with the atma substance of that time. This ego-atma substance was then still one with the hierarchical beings. We can say that the ego was at one with Atma, one with Brahma, at one with the “Word” of the created. The Word brought forth atma-sphere substance. At this point, the human being is a unitary being within the divine. Man is a racially, divinely determined being. At this point, the atmosphere (atma-sphere) contained all the substances as potential which were to unfold later. In a way we can say this is totapotential substance – this is atma substance. This is the first mother substance – first mater-matter. This mother substance is at one with God, we can say. This is mother substance of the father ground. The substance of this Polarian period of existence is determined by what was given on Saturn, worked through that evolution and then worked through by the Kyriotetes of the Sun, then the Dynamis of the Moon and finally taken in with ego birth to give rise to Polarian man. Man then existed in the sphere of Atma, in the atmosphere. To depict this spatially, I suggest that as we consider today’s earth orientation, we consider that this process hovered in atmospheric existence in the region of the east in the current lower thermosphere.

Let us progress to the next stage of evolution, where we find not only warmth totapotential (totipotential – editor) substance, but we encounter the airy condition that mingles with this warmth. The watery and solid has not yet come forth. It is at this time that the sun exited from the earth so that a certain living element was withdrawn. The living element that played into the substance or atmospheric substance of that time was sun irradiated. The atmospheric earth into which the ego then made a next step in being born, lived in this airy-warmth enlivened substance. This then is no longer just physical substance. Sun irradiated substance becomes living substance. This being substance is taken with the sun at the time of exit. It is at this time that the tree-like equisetum appears in the airy warmth while the human ego was being born in the light and warmth of the exited sun. The equisetum process has been termed siliceous, silica process by Rudolf Steiner. It is out of this living substance, this silica process, this atmosphere process, that later our silica of today has risen. As this siliceous, airy plant arose in the air, man’s ego was being born from atma substance, the living Budhi-substance. With the physical atma birth, the ego was still within the bosom of the spiritual world. With the second stage of earth evolution, Hyperborea, Hyperborean man becomes an ego being with a first separation from the divine. So the birth of the ego is from divine existence, accompanying substance transformation into life. Man is a racial being at this point, still determined by the hierarchical-spiritual world. If we consider this phase of evolution still connected with atmosphere, we can locate this evolution in relationship to our present earthly cosmic configuration as taking place in our north. The atmospheric evolutionary process, I would suggest we consider as taking place in the region of the North Pole of the earth, in the outer reaches of our atmosphere. The process is still one within the region of the atmosphere. During Hyperborea, solid earth as such had not yet precipitated out of the atmosphere. Man is still a racial being. The ego is still racial ego. The birth of the ego is from out of the physical-divine to the living divine.

The next stage of evolution we speak of as the time of Lemuria. It is a mirror of Moon evolution. This is a time when we still have to consider the human being as ego being, coming forth slowly out of the hierarchical world. The substance, the atmospheric substance, is now not only that of livingness, but is ensouled. At this time, the ego is born into soul like substance. This soul-like substance is brought about by the astral animal world working into the original atmospheric substance. Rudolf Steiner tells that animal forms appeared within the atmosphere that is now airy and very much penetrated by water, very much penetrated wateriness. (The animals appeared as apocalyptic forms – lion, bull, eagle – man). The substance process is described as a calcium process. We can imagine the original atmosphere as tota-potential (totipotential  -editor) substance. The siliceous process from Hyperborea worked into this substance to bring about what later became silica. At this time of Lemuria, the animal astral element works into the original atmospheric substance to bring about what has been termed by Rudolf Steiner as the rain of calcium. This rain permitted animal forms to appear within this atmospheric substance. Man at this time was born as ego out into the animal substance to become a soul. The ego now becomes, not only being, but soul being. The soul-nature of man begins to evolve at this time. This is a continued slow birthing of the ego and, at the same time, the evolution of the animal-like substance. The substance is calcium process. Later this process gives rise to proteinaceous matter. We can, likewise, in looking back to the Hyperborean period, consider that the cellulose like substance or plant substance, is laid as a potential as the siliceous processes occurred. This was plant like substance. In the time of Lemuria, not only was water present, but it was animal-sensitive water. This water substance was animal substance created out of the original atma-word substance. We can call this water-substance – protein.

These three steps in early earth evolution speak to the racial birth of man. Man is of mankind – a Polarian man, then a Hyperborean man, and then a Lemurian man. The latter man I would suggest we consider as still atmospheric, but beginning to touch the watery-earthy, the living substance, which is somewhat congealed by the exit of the moon. The moon was withdrawn from the earth in the latter part of the Lemurian period. It is probably well to consider that this process took place in the southern region of our earth. Lemuria came into existence in the southern polar earth region and hovered at first in the watery-heat-filled-light dampened atmosphere.

We are then seeing the gradual evolution of substance. We see it evolve as the ego nature or individuality of man is being born. This ego nature is first racial and cosmic racial – Polarian, Hyperborean, Lemurian. A true relationship with the earth does not begin until the latter period of Lemuria, as the Lemurian evolutionary period came to an end through the ferocious play of fire. Lemuria was destroyed by fire.

Our next stage in evolution is to consider the actual physical birth of the human ego. For the first time the ego actually touches solid matter. Matter has become solid, though solid in the form of ash. We have to consider then that the matter is no longer in the region of the atmosphere, but has actually descended and become solid. At this stage, earth matter is invested with electricity, magnetism and gravity. In order for this to occur, a tremendous activity has had to eventuate. Spiritual beings known as elemental spirits have had to be born to the third hierarchy, bringing about the conditions of materiality, the airy, liquid and finally the solid. The human ego being can be born into the warmth of the earthly materiality, but this warmth materiality is still very living and airy, not compacted-solid. The ash form of earth is somewhat living by virtue of the fact that it is invested by the condition of the ether called warmth-ether. The human ego for the first time actually touches physical earth existence by dint of the fact that the warmth-ash nature is penetrated by warmth-ether. By this means the ego actually is finally able to become an earth ego. This gives rise to the racial evolution of man known as Atlantean man. The time of Atlantis is considered to be the fourth stage of evolution and the first time of true earth consolidation. Prior to this time, the evolutionary process took place within the domain of the atmosphere. With Atlantis, and the solid being drawn out of the atmosphere, as well as the liquid, we finally have an atmosphere that begins to resemble the condition of the atmosphere today. What has to be noted, however, is that at that time, the atmosphere had to contain still a tota-potential (totipotential- editor) living substance. It is into this substance that the ego is born. It is warmth, warmth-ether substance, giving rise to ego birth. To this warmth-ether substance, I would give the term albumin. I would distinguish it from the protein that is created by animal working, by calcium process. This is albuminous substance process brought about by the ego entering into the living substance. At this stage of ego birth, one still has to speak of racial unfoldment. Atlantean man is still racial.

This racialness of Atlantis is slowly divided by a sevenfolding of man. This sevenfolding gives rise to the different continents of the earth so that the earth substance is, in a way, secreted out of the atmosphere and created in space to give rise to, we can say, Atlantean, but planetary determined humanity. This still is racially determined man. The substance of this birth we can say is albuminous. Man’s existence is still one of existing with the living atma-sphere, but the earth substance is taken up as an outer garment. Only slowly did man descend out of the atmosphere to dip into the hydrosphere and then the lithosphere. The lithosphere of earth was raised into the hydrosphere by man. Man is actually an airy-watery being on earth. The solid is cared for by elemental beings. In early Atlantis, man was just beginning his limb formation. With the separating out of the hydrosphere from the atmosphere, we would have to consider the unfolding of the abdominal regions of man in relation to the watery, the limbs in relation to the solid, and the breathing process unfolding with the airy. Only as the ego begins to unfold and evolve, as somewhat of an independent entity, does the atmospheric substance, the albumin, become differentiated, four-folded, and become carbon activity, oxygen activity, hydrogen activity and nitrogen activity.

We then have to focus on this atmosphere, this living atmosphere with living substance, which was breathed. This was the birthing condition of the ego, as earth ego. Man’s earthly ego was able then finally to leave the hierarchy of the Elohim. The ego had to work into this albuminous substance and with the assistance of spiritual beings had to begin to cloth itself with an astral, etheric and finally a physical body. As these steps in development occurred, we can consider that slowly the living, albuminous substance became differentiated. This living albuminous substance, a kind of mother substance of the Atlantean condition, began to differentiate so that we can speak of the birth of the siblings that we discussed earlier. We can say that the ego working to constitute a physical body gave rise to carbon out of albumin. The ego working to constitute the etheric body gave rise to oxygen. The ego working to constitute an astral body gave rise to nitrogen and finally the ego working as fire being gave rise to hydrogen out of the albumin. All these four substances were, in a way, born out of the mother substance of the Atlantean atmosphere, and we finally see the present condition of the atmosphere coming into existence. The atmos (atma) siliceous and calcium substances were already in existence for man’s higher ego existence – Atma, Budhi, and Manes.

What I have just given then is one possible means of contemplating carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen. These four siblings were born of the Mother atmo-sphere of late Lemuria, early Atlantis. I would like to suggest that the fifth sibling, the being of sulphur, was born when the most evolved of the Elohim were able to bring forth a respiratory process in man. This is the time of a further evolution of breathing. Breathing became respiration with the advent of the higher soul nature of man entering into the differentiating albuminous substance of Atlantis. I would like to consider that with the breathing of the “living soul” into man by Jahve, by the Elohim, albuminous substance received the impulse to bring forth sulphur. This is a further transformation, a further differentiation of “mother substance”. Sulphur as the fifth sibling, was born (actually was in process throughout Polaria, Hyperborea and Lemuria). Through the sulphur process, the mother-born carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and hydrogen could remain in relation to the higher make up of man. With the birth of the sulphur, higher man, that is Manas, Budhi, Atma, was able to remain in connection with the earth-born ego. Sulphur was able to work into the actual transformations of the differentiating albuminous substance so that an inner respiratory process, with the transforming of this albuminous substance, could occur in relation to the earth, as well as cosmos – the higher membering of man. The indwelling of higher man brought about the advent of the sulphurous sibling, a birthing wherein the sulphury permitted the four siblings to begin to develop in an inner transformative process which we now can refer to as respiratory metabolism of albumin.

The five-sister beings are born of the albuminous mother. They are invested by the substance processes that are brought over from earlier evolution. We can speak of the mineral substance process that is brought over from Polaria, the plant-cellulose substance process that is brought over from Hyperborea, the animal-protein substance process that is brought over from Lemuria. The sibling transformations connected with respiration have to swing with the activities of Polaria, Hyperborea and Lemuria. The five sisters are ever transformed, influenced by silica and calcium processes from Hyperborea and Lemuria and the primal matter brought over from Polaria. Primal matter gives birth to the mineral, the plant and animal substances with the five sister transformations. Mineral, cellulose (carbohydrate), protein and albumen are brought about out of primal matter by plant, animal and human ego working. Fat substance we can consider to have arisen out of the atmosphere of Atlantis before the ego was born physically into ash. Plant cellulose matter arose out of Hyperborea. Protein substance arose out of the original atmosphere in Lemuria and finally fat-like substance arose in Atlantis out of the atmosphere substance. Primal matter becomes the living mother substance that births the siblings and permits mineral, plant, animal and human albumen and fat substances to arise.

Now if we consider these substances in the atmosphere, they are breathed in by man. Outer substances of the atmosphere are breathed in. These substances are born as man’s ego is born or born with man’s ego. However, within man there is a process of transformation related to breathing. We call this respiration. This is respiratory metabolism. It is substance transformation in man related to breathing, the atmosphere and higher man. However, this respiratory metabolism is dependent upon a yet further differentiation that permits the single individual to live in the breathing and respiratory metabolic activity. The atmosphere and breathing relate man to the cosmos. Respiration relates man to the earthliness of the organism and the spiritual. But for the true singular ego to relate to the human organism, the earthly, a sixth sibling is needed as already indicated. This is antimony. With the birth of antimony, we can then for the first time consider that a being of the cosmos, an individual, can be brought into the inner working of man, in all aspects of bodily life. In order for this birth to occur, a very special cosmic circumstance had to come about, Venus and Mercury had to come into existence. This permitted transition in the cosmos from outer to inner – outer and inner planets. The substance antimony was born to carry the organs of the cosmos into man. This lays the foundation for breathing or respiration and for the creation of man’s inner organs out of the cosmos. As we know, Rudolf Steiner has described the workings of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen as meteorological organs in the atmosphere. The working of the atmosphere as organs, as organ substances, has to be taken into man to become the inner organs of the human physical makeup when man becomes an earthly being. From Rudolf Steiner’s indications, we can consider that man’s four main organs are actually an antimonized transformation of the five sistered albumin. The antimony and antimonizing process permits the entry of the cosmic meteorological to become the working of man’s organs, so that man can carry on the albuminous process in his organism. This process has to be open to the activity of the single individual also. The outer albuminous activity through antimony becomes inner organs and metabolic activity for the single individual. Individual metabolic activity is known as the activity of will. The four sisters are taken into man, and work in association with the fifth sister. This is a metabolic process. The four sisters are meteorological organs. In man they become the organs which function metabolically – create albumin with the aid of sulphur activity. As we know, Rudolf Steiner has indicated that the carbon atmosphere organ gives rise to the formation and function of the lung. The oxygen activity of the atmosphere becomes anchored in the liver. The atmospheric activity of nitrogen, meteorological activity becomes transformed and is indwelled in the kidney. Finally the hydrogen atmosphere organ is transformed to become, within man, the organ and function of the human heart. These four main organs thereby become the basis for the unfolding of the albumin in man. It is the living albuminous condition that permits the birth of the ego into the physical and is crucial for man’s continued existence. This albumin is however, further transformed and in man becomes individualized by the working of antimony.

By virtue of this meteorological transformation into inner organs, there can be a gradual individualization of the entire human organization. This is a most inward process that comes to expression as a next step in the processes of the metabolism related to will.

We have come to this point by considering breathing, respiration, metabolism and now will-metabolic activity. These processes have evolved out of the cosmos. They then can unfold within man. The five sister activity and the antimonizing activity brings about the possible birth of the individual in activity. Man thereby can evolve out of a racial condition into one of singular individuality in activity – true single individual-unique birth can occur. This follows with the steps of being born with breathing, respiration, metabolism and will. The human individuality, the real singleness of man unfolds in this way. This requires the sulphur and antimony processes so that the higher nature of man can be born and also the true singularity of the human ego can come to expression in the world.

As I have tried to indicate here, this is a very lengthy process in the evolution of matter. Incredible transformations in original archetypal substance have had to occur. This is an exceedingly complicated process, far more than I think has been considered today. One can say that the whole spiritual world has had to work at the evolution of this materiality in order that man as a true and single human being can come into existence and express himself. The reason for trying to detail this evolution of matter is to indicate that the substances of the earth, as we know them today, are the expression and by-products of the actual evolution of this process which makes singular individual ego birth possible. Man is born out of racialness into true unique individuality by the process of the substances of existence going through transformations. At first the spiritual world has worked upon substance. Then man as ego has become active at the beginning of Atlantis. The Mother albuminous substance was actually differentiated by the work of the human ego itself. This permitted the true birth of the human ego out of the world of the divine, out of the world of the group soul. The evolution of substance, the transformation of the atmosphere, the bringing about of the earth itself, is then seen as an act of man. This is an unfolding of the human ego so that eventually this true independent individual (unique being) can be born for active-creative existence. This long contemplation is necessary for if we do not have individual man, we certainly cannot have the birth of an individuality of a farm. We now have the earth, we have nations and we have peoples. We do not yet have true individualities who can give birth to the being who can become the individuality of a farm, of a specific location on earth. We are striving in this direction.

To make this story even more complex, I think we now have to consider how the earth itself was constituted out of this atmosphere. Rudolf Steiner indicates that this occurred in Atlantis. He speaks of the various Mystery Centers of Atlantis as slowly bringing about earth man. The earth was configured and differentiated through the mysteries and the incarnation of man. From the Atlantean Mysteries, guided by super-human beings, Avatars – earth-man came into existence.

The Saturn Mystery gave rise to the earth that became the Americas. The process of the America’s formation came from the Saturn Mysteries. These mysteries gave rise to the glandular system within man. Thus a bringing about of the organization in man corresponds with the creation of a given region of the earth.

A next stage in Mystery working is the Jupiter working. This gave rise to the human senses. The earth counterpart of evolution for the development of the human senses was the bringing forth of Europe. We have to contemplate how slowly the earth formed itself out of the atmosphere as man formed his varying makeup and the earth itself was configured. At this early time of Atlantis, man was planetary man, but also earth-man at the same time. We can consider the earth to be man as well.

As we progress to the Mars Mysteries, it is here that the blood system of man is created. As this occurs, the Mongolian-China continent is formed on earth. Earth settles out of the atmosphere. Man’s organization is constituted as this occurs.

Next comes the Moon-Mars Mystery which gives rise to the blood and the brain of man. The earth region of the Middle East is constructed at the same time.

As we pass to the Venus Mystery working in man, planetary workings of the atmosphere-ether world, the nerve-plexus, the sympathetic nervous system, is formed in man. Outwardly, the region of India and Malaysia came into being on earth. The region of our abdomen, the nerve-plexus of the abdomen and then gradually the other nerve-plexuses form as the great continent of India and Malaysia come into existence.

And finally we have to consider the Mercury Mystery that gave rise outwardly on the earth, to the continent of Africa. In man the lymph and glandular system evolved with these continents.

The final organ to develop was that of the heart, the organ of the Sun Mystery itself. The Mystery was the central mystery of Atlantis and came about with the unfolding of Atlantis itself.

In this way we contemplate how gradually the earth is congealed out of the atmosphere, out of this same atmosphere as the human configuration. Slowly the various systems are constituted. Out of the living albuminous substance of the atmosphere, man’s inner organs are brought about. We then see that the gradual birthing process of the ego is accompanied by the formation of man’s various physical organic makeup. The inner organs are constituted and at the same time the earth formation comes about. This is an immense process of the unfolding of man and earth simultaneously. The continents with races and languages can be contemplated. The various racial origins in the cosmos can be discovered. Man comes to earth. His individual configuration becomes possible. It is built on what the planetary world and the earth give to the individual for further evolution – for cultural evolution.

It is the spirit now that evolves the human being. It is no longer the physical and racial that brings forth and births the ego. The ego is therefore, born out of the spirit. The earth ego, we can speak of as the lower ego. The higher ego we can speak of as being born out of and remaining in contact with that which is spiritual. This spirit can become determinative and can become the universal link of all who become individuated. Those who become individuated can retain a universal link. The impressing of the individual and universal into the earth is the reason for giving birth to the individuality of the farm. This means the earth can become highly differentiated, but at the same time, each differentiation bears the impulse of the universal. It would seem to me that not until we accomplish this extreme individualization of the earth, which bears the universal, that we can find the much sought for unity, unity with incredible diversity. This we seek. With this unity, it is possible to consider extreme individualization without destruction.

With this line of reasoning, we can consider how absolutely crucial it is that the individuality of the farm comes into existence. It permits the single individual to exist on the earth and at the same time participate in the universal. Then we can say there can be unity in diversity. It is then a tremendous task that the farmer has to undertake for the sake of the earth and mankind as he strives to unfold the individuality of the farm. The human form and activity can be individualized.